Hair owns its color to a pigment called melanin, and the ratio between its two varieties - eumelanin and pheomelanin, gives the uniqueness of each person.
For chemical hair lightening needed are substances (most often ammonia), which "open" the cuticle, allowing the discoloration agent (usually hydrogen peroxide and persulfate) to reach the melanin and remove it. For this purpose, specific cosmetic products are created, called lighteners. Their use is indispensable if the goal is to acquire color, which is more than three shades lighter than the natural one. While it could be used alone, a lightener is intended to prepare the hair before dying in the blonde range.
Naturally blonde hair resulted from a gene mutation that occurred more than 10,000 years ago. A result of a random error or a divine plan, today, it is a possession of only 2% of the world’s population. Since ancient times, however, women were not satisfied with their natural beauty and sought various ways to obtain the exclusive color. This gave birth to amazing mixtures of organic and inorganic materials, such as wood ashes, matured wine, alum, honey and much more. But none of them was able to significantly change the color of dark hair. With the development of chemical science numerous laboratory created substances came in use, but the price for a satisfactory brightening effect was unreasonably high - headache, poisoning, burns and even hair loss.
After the discovery of hydrogen peroxide in 1818, a new era began in the field of hair lightening, although several more decades had to pass before the safe concentration and its ratio to other active substances were established.
Nowadays, sophisticated products can be found that allow single-step, gentle hair and scalp lightening, with up to 8 tons. Besides ensuring excellent color, modern brighteners are enriched with vitamins, plant extracts and oils that nourish the hair and impart vitality and shine.